Exercise 5. Find the Participles and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.



Exercise 1. Learn the following words.

diphtheria [dɪf´θɪәriә] дифтерія
deleterious [ deli´tiəriəs ] шкідливий
temperate [ 'tempərit ] помірний
throughout [θru(:)'aut ] по всьому
susceptible [sə'səptəbl] вразливий; сприйнятливий
menace [ 'menɪs ] загроза; небезпека
robust [ rə'bʌst] міцний, здоровий; сильний, дужий
fauces [ fɔ:si:z] зів
faucial [ fɔ:siəl ] той, що має відношення до зіва
raw [rɔ:] сирий; позбавлений шкіри
myocarditis [maiәʋka:´daitis] міокардит
mandatory [ 'mændətəri ] обов'язковий, примусовий
quarantine ['kwɒrənti:n ] карантин
successive [sək'sesiv ] наступний, послідовний

Exercise 2. Match the following terms with their definitions:

1.diphtheria 2.inflammation 3.fibrin 4.toxin 5.nerve 6.neck 7.tonsils 8.palate 9.uvula 10.neuritis 11.antitoxin 12.myocarditis a.a poison of plant or animal origin, especially one produced by or derived from micro-organisms and acting as an antigen in the body; b.whitish fibre or bundle of fibres in the body that transmits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord, and impulses from these to the muscles and organs; c.inflammation of a peripheral nerve or nerves, usually causing pain and loss of function; d. an acute and highly contagious bacterial disease causing inflammation of the mucous membranes, formation of a false membrane in the throat which hinders breathing and swallowing, and potentially fatal heart and nerve damage by a bacterial toxin in the blood; e.an antibody that counteracts a toxin; f.a fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate which hangs above the throat; g.a localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection; h.an insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen during the clotting of blood. It forms a fibrous mesh that impedes the flow of blood; i.the part of a person's or animal's body connecting the head to the rest of the body; j.inflammation of the heart muscle; k.the roof of the mouth, separating the cavities of the mouth and nose in vertebrates; l.either of two small masses of lymphoid tissue in the throat, one on each side of the root of the tongue;

Exercise 3. Find corresponding equivalents:

1.fibrin 2.dissemination 3.experience 4.predispose 5.pillar of fauces 6.dreadful 7.apt to smth 8.employment 9.stiffness 10.culture 11.blood stream 12.deleterious effect 13.healthy carrier 14.insidious onset a)здоровий носій b)вживання,використовування;застосування c)піднебінні дужки d)схиляти, привертати e)безсимптомний початок f)жахливий, страшний g)придатний; відповідний; доречний h)фибрин i)тугорухливість, закляканість j)культура; вирощувати k)кровообіг l)згубна дія m)розповсюдження, поширення n)досвід

Exercise 4. Read and translate the following sentences. Define the form and function of Participle I in the sentences:

1. Looking at some case reports the doctor explained something to his assistants. 2. The student is examining the patient together with the doctor- in-charge. 3. As the patient complains of a severe headache the nurse is giving him some medicines. 4. Examining the patient the doctor noticed some changes in his recovery. 5. The moaning patient didn’t hear when the doctor on duty entered the ward. 6. A man, who was operated on malignant tumor in his stomach, died 3 days ago. 7. The man, who had broken his leg, was discharged from the hospital yesterday. 8. The analyses, which showed the microbes of pneumonia, turned out to be false.

Exercise 5. Find the Participles and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. The blood will have less oxygen combined with hemoglobin because the need of the active muscles has withdrawn more oxygen in a restful state. 2. Cardiac failure may be present when the heart is functioning at 90 per cent efficiency. 3. A drug extracted from a plant of the digitalis group is indicated in almost all cases of heart failure. 4. The diseased heart may have such a handicap as to be unable to move the blood satisfactory. 5. The patient received an adequate treatment with diphtheria antitoxin which contributed to the clearing up of the throat. 6. The child that was left alone in the doctor's cabinet began to cry. 7. The microbes that caused so many illnesses, was distinguished. 8. A man, who was vaccinated, managed to catch a flue.

Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:


Diphtheria is an acute contagious disease caused by specific organism bacillus diphtheria. It is characterized by local inflammation with fibrin formation of the mucous membranes, usually of the upper respiratory tract, with production of a toxin which when absorbed into the blood stream may produce deleterious effects on various parts of the body, especially the heart and peripheral nerves.

A diphtheria skin lesion on the leg.

The disease exists throughout the world but is more common in temperate zones and during the colder months, autumn and winter. It is commonly spread by direct contact which must be fairly intimate. Dissemination by third objects such as clothes, toys, etc. may also occur and carriage by milk has been reported many times. Healthy carriers may disseminate the disease to susceptible persons and thus constitute a menace to public health. Children appear to be more liable to diphtheria than adults; although the most robust people may be attacked and those whose health is weakened by any cause are especially predisposed.

The incubation period is three to ten days. The disease may be divided into three main forms according to the anatomical distribution of the membrane: a) faucial or pharyngeal; b) laryngeal; c) nasal.

The onset of the disease is insidious with relatively moderate temperature reaction. In general, following an incubation period of about two days, symptoms set in like those commonly accompanying a cold. A slight feeling of uneasiness in the throat is experienced along with some stiffness of the back of the neck. The earliest objective manifestation of the disease is the formation of a thin film of fibrin on the tonsils which increases in thickness to form characteristic yellowish-white or grayish-white pseudomembrane. The throat appears to be reddened and somewhat swollen. If the pseudomembrane is forcibly removed, it is found to separate from the underlying true mucous membrane with difficulty and leaves a raw, bleeding surface on which in the untreated cases a fresh membrane rapidly reforms. The lesion tends to spread over the pillars and onto the soft palate and uvula. Hence any membranous formation on pharyngeal tissues should immediately be regarded as a suspicion of diphtheria.

Myocarditis is the most dreadful of all complications of diphtheria. It is due to direct action of the toxin on the heart muscle. Another severe complication is peripheral neuritis. It occurs in the form of paralysis affecting the soft palate and throat. Other forms of paralysis are paralysis of eye or even respiratory muscles, paralysis of a limb or both legs. These symptoms, however, after continuing for a variable length of time, almost always ultimately disappear.

The outcome of the disease depends mainly on one factor, namely, the early administration of adequate doses of antitoxin. Its employment in any recognized or even suspected case of diphtheria is mandatory and no physician can delay its administration. The second important measure is rest, the patient being kept strictly flat.

Patients suffering from diphtheria should be isolated for at least two weeks after the onset of the disease, and then until three successive cultures from the nose and throat taken not less than 48 hours apart are negative.


Exercise 7. Answer the following questions:

1. What is diphtheria caused by?

2. Is it contagious disease?

3. What is the disease characterized by?

4. Where is diphtheria more common?

5. Who is more liable to diphtheria?

6. What is the incubation period of the disease?

7. What are the main forms of diphtheria?

8. What are its main symptoms?

9. What are its main complications?

10. What does the outcome of the disease depend on?