The strong social group identity created by language and other factors is not only important in social interaction and in identifying others as “the same” but it also forms our judgements of others as “different”. This ultimately leads to a division of in-group and outgroup, in layman’s terms: “us” against “them”. Not only does our social identity shape our evaluations of someone in an out-group, they will also affect our evaluation of our ingroup (Cargile & Giles, 1997). But how to determine and define which group someone belongs to? Human beings do not react on the basis of stimulus and sensory input alone but rather we interpret what we perceive and then react (Edwards, 1999). Perception is a cultural screen window in the mind through which all things filter. “What we perceive about a person’s culture and language is what we have been conditioned by our own culture to see, and the stereotypical models already built around our own” (Kramsch, 1998). We do not create our own attitudes; our attitudes are passed on to us by the generations before us and the society around us. These stereotypes are learned behavior, and persist; although they may or may not reflect the social reality, they are obligatory for our survival (Ladegaard, 1998). (To be continued in Unit 2-15)


Instruction:Getting ready to write a summary keep in mind thatthe first sentence or paragraph often is an opening or a general definition. It may be safe to assume that your reader is already familiar with the subject matter; thus you do not have to include it in your summary.

This can save time and effort for you. But remember that the classification of the principles, concepts and facts is mportant. Ignore specific details about the different principles. Remember that many terms are self-explanatory. Include a description of the problem surrounding correct identification of a particular accent. Provide some support/explanation for the problem, but not all the details. Describe other problems associated with differing speaking modes of ethnically different students. Provide some explanation, but not all the details. Describe the action taken by the author to solve the problem.